We continue to talk about vitamins - this time we will focus on heart health. We asked a cardiologist, Ph.D. , the therapist of the Atlas Medical Center, Maria Kirillov, to explain what useful elements are necessary for the excellent functioning of the cardiovascular system.
We do not recommend choosing vitamins for yourself (even if your goal is prevention).
Only a doctor, relying on the results of tests, can identify a lack of one or another element and prescribe a complex of micro and macro elements suitable for you.
- To prevent cardiovascular diseases in complex treatment uses vitamin E (tocopherol). With regular and prolonged use - in a daily dose of 100-800 IU - the risk of developing coronary heart disease and stroke is reduced by 30%. In conditions of insufficiency of blood circulation of the heart, there is also an antiarrhythmic effect of vitamin E. In healthy people and patients with diabetes mellitus, a decrease in glucose level is noted (in the case of an elevated level).
Being a powerful antioxidant, vitamin E prevents the oxidation of fats and, accordingly, protects the cardiovascular system from potential damage. In addition, it modulates the functions of the immune system, acting as a direct protector of cell membranes. The action of vitamin E is realized in the presence of other antioxidants - ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, bioflanoids, coenzyme Q.
Preventive intake of vitamin A and carotenoids (beta-carotene) reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (beta-carotene is especially recommended for smokers to prevent stroke).
Vitamin C has a multilateral effect on the body person. Regular intake of vitamin C helps reduce bad cholesterol, stabilizes blood sugar and normalizes blood coagulation.
Vitamin F is a complex of unsaturated fatty acids. It is included in the composition of drugs aimed at lowering blood cholesterol (if it is elevated). Vitamin F is involved in lipid metabolism and prevents the deposition of "bad" cholesterol in the form of atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of blood vessels.
In addition, it slows down the inflammatory processes in the body. Vitamin F is found in fish oil and certain oils. Scientists have found that, for example, the Eskimos of Greenland, who feed on oily cold-water fish, do not suffer from diseases of the heart and blood vessels. The exact norms of consumption are not established empirically, but in international practice, one percent of the total daily caloric requirement is taken as the basis. Vitamin F is not a drug, but is nevertheless used quite successfully.
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Now quite a lot of research is being done, which confirm the beneficial effects of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. Its deficiency can be a risk factor for myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, as well as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. There are studies confirming the relationship between the level of vitamin D in the body and stiffness of the arteries (in studies, including postmenopausal women and patients with diabetes mellitus). And at the beginning of 2018, Ohio University research results were published stating that vitamin D prevents and repairs arterial endothelial damage caused by diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis.
To maintain an adequate level of vitamin D throughout the year, most adults are advised to take 800-2000 IU per day.
Vitamin P (rutin) is a water-soluble vitamin, an important component in the complex protection of the cardiovascular system. Together with vitamin C, it strengthens the vascular wall at the molecular level and reduces bleeding. Vitamin P in pharmaceuticals is usually available either in combination with ascorbic acid, or as a component of vitamin-mineral complexes. The recommended dosage of rutin ranges from 25-50 mg per day - for both children and adults.
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The cardiovascular system also needs a vitamin-like substance Q10. Coenzyme Q10 is found in almost all cells of the body, but its concentration in the heart (an organ with high energy requirements) is highest. He is involved in the antioxidant defense of cells, including cardiomyocytes. Q10 is partially synthesized by the body, prevents the development of myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis.
It is successfully used in various supplements, including athletes. In Soviet times, Q10 was used to better adapt weather-dependent people. Most of the coenzyme Q10 is found in red meats, soy and palm oil, peanuts and herring, and its daily intake is 3-6 mg.
Many athletes use L-carnitine, a vitamin-like substance similar to the vitamins of the group B - to increase the effectiveness of training. It ensures the correct course of metabolic processes in tissues, including in the heart muscle.
The main trace elements that are associated with the work of the cardiovascular system is magnesium , selenium, zinc, potassium, phosphorus and calcium. It is established that an imbalance of magnesium, potassium and calcium leads to the development of various cardiac arrhythmias, and the optimal level of all trace elements is important for maintaining the internal electrolyte balance. But it should be noted that the use of vitamin complexes in many cases is hampered by their instability or the inability of the body to absorb them. That is why it is necessary to eat in a balanced and timely manner to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.