Types of running in athletics and amateur training: from A to Z

Running is a popular area of ​​physical activity. There are professional and amateur varieties of running training. If you want to learn how to run to lose weight and tighten your body, read the article to the end.

Types of running in athletics and amateur training: from A to Z

Track and field athletics

Disciplines that are part of the Olympic program. We will analyze in detail the types of running used in athletics.

Most of the distances in world competitions are flat surfaces. From here the term "smooth run" was born. In fact, the concept means high-speed movement along the surface of the stadium, which does not have elevations and slopes. Examples are the relay race and sprint.

Sprint

Competitions based on overcoming short distances (60, 100, 200, 400 meters).

Sprinters are the fastest athletes in athletics. Due to this, their races are the most spectacular. Sometimes victory and defeat depend on hundredths of a second. In addition to the athlete’s physical preparation, the results are affected by the start technique, the setting of the foot, hand movements, the quality of shoes, etc.

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A feature of the sprint is the anaerobic (power) type of load. The athlete receives energy for movement not from oxygen, but from the reserves of water and glycogen in the muscles. Because of this, the peak of speed occurs in 40-60 meters, and then there is a decline. The task of the athlete is to correctly calculate the possibilities so as not to spend energy in the middle of the distance .

Famous runners: Usain Bolt, Maurice Green, Alexander Brednev.

Mid-distance running

Athletics, in which the length of the competition segment is longer than the sprint, but shorter than the styer distance. At the Olympics, runs are held at 800 and 1500 meters. Longer stretches (2000 m, 3000 m) have never been used in world championships. Most often, races of 2000 m or more are commercial or are used by athletes to prepare for major competitions.

The task of the middle distance runner is to develop tactics for overcoming the segment . Athletes start in anaerobic (power) mode, using internal reserves as an energy source. After that, they gradually switch to aerobic respiration in order to use oxygen in the processes of energy exchange.

Famous athletes: David Rudisha, Yuri Borzakovsky, Maria Savinova.

Stayer's run

Discipline in which the athlete overcomes long distances - from 3000 m and more.

The Olympic race includes 5000 and 10,000 m races. Often long-distance competitions are held not on stadiums, but on the highway.

Tactics are different from sprint tactics. Styer does not use a power start. He gradually picks up a competitive pace and adheres to it during the race, accelerating only in the last stages of .

A feature of the styer run is aerobic exercise.The athlete’s body uses oxygen for redox processes. As a result, the athlete gets the opportunity to travel long distances. Externally, styers are easily recognizable by their relatively small muscle mass and low percentage of subcutaneous fat.

Famous styers: Mo Fara, Kenenis Bekele, Tirunesh Dibaba.

Marathon

Long run for 42 km 195 m. Included in the Olympic program. Half-distance championships are also being organized - half marathons. Competitions are held not at the stadium, but on a specially fenced section of the highway. Since the distance is very long, food and drink points are established every 5 km.

This helps athletes maintain depleted energy reserves.

The marathon is not suitable for beginners. Before applying for the competition, it is necessary to undergo intensive training in a special school. The minimum training cycle time is 6-7 months . The main task of the athlete during the training period is to "teach" the body to store more than 600 g of glycogen.

For this, carbohydrate diets are used.

Famous marathon runners: Eliud Kipchoge, Dennis Kimetto, Emmanuel Mutai.

Relay race

Team athletics competition. The distance is divided into segments. Each running stage, athletes replace each other.

The Olympic program includes distances of 4x100 m and 4x400 m. In the world championships, the following relay races are also found: 4x200 m, 4x800 m, 4x1500 m. Each stage, in fact, is a sprint race for an athlete, which he needs to pass as quickly as possible.

Relay symbol - a stick transmitted between athletes of the same team. The competition has strict rules.

For example, it is forbidden to transfer the stick outside a special distance segment. Obstruction of the athletes of the other team in the passage of the site is also punished. But the most common mistake is the loss of the wand.

4x100 m record team: Usain Bolt, Nesta Carter, Michael Freiter, Johan Blake.

Barrier run

The discipline included in the Olympic classification.

The basis is running with overcoming several barriers, the height of which varies from 700 to 1000 m. Runs are carried out at 50, 60, 100, 110, 400 m. Running with barriers is demanding on the execution technique. For example, an athlete should not jump over an obstacle, but "step over". The second important point is a quick set of speed after overcoming barriers.

According to the rules for run-down obstacles, the runner does not receive a fine. But each drop in the barrier affects the loss of fractions of a second, which become decisive in the race. The competition regulations prohibit entering a limb outside the barrier and specifically knocking down an obstacle. In general, such a run involves the sprinting specialization of athletes .

Famous champions: Sergey Shubenkov, Omar MacLeod, Aris Merritt.

Steeple-through

The discipline included in the Olympic program. Distance - 3000 m. The track has 35 obstacles.The most “insidious” are water pits, in which athletes often slip and fall. The design of the barriers has also been changed - they are wide, monolithic, with a rigid setting.

The rules are allowed to overcome obstacles by stepping on them. This saves energy, but takes precious seconds.

The task of the athlete is to distribute forces over the entire distance and overcome obstacles . Athlete training should be consistent with the level of a middle distance runner. Additionally, jumping over barriers is practiced.

By the way, shoes for the steeple chez are used special with the function of eliminating water.

Famous champions: Saif Said Shahin, Ruth Dzhebet, Gulnara Galkina-Samitova.

Amateur running

We examined professional disciplines. Now we will analyze simple running options that are suitable for independent training.

Jogging or jogging

The most affordable and easiest kind of jogging.

It is used to maintain health, as well as in weight loss programs as an effective physical activity.

Jogging - jogging at a speed of 7-9 km / h. Distance - any, at the request and goals of the athlete. As a rule, the duration of the training is 50-60 minutes. This time is enough for the body to spend its glycogen reserves and put fat into consumption.

The peculiarity of jogging - with minimal forward movement and a short phase of "flight", the athlete retains the useful properties of running at higher speeds. When conducting such exercises, it is necessary to eliminate the following errors:

  • too strong landing on the legs;
  • setting the foot on the heel without pushing the toe;
  • excessive forward bend.

All this reduces the efficiency and accelerates the fatigue of the leg muscles.

The method of posture running

The author’s development of the athlete and coach Nikolai Romanov, who in 2000 and 2004 prepared the British triathlon team for the Olympic Games. Romanov claims that his methodology can improve performance in many disciplines.

In Russia, the methodologist does not conduct seminars and does not train people. Therefore, a full description of his approach to training, you can find in the book "Pose method of running."

Let's analyze the principles of movement around Romanov. The main thing is the pose (hence the name). Imagine a line running vertically through the crown of the head, pelvis, and forefoot.

Then create a light fall forward and substitute the other leg. Alternately changing the limbs, you will move.

Important - the feet should not go beyond the line of the pelvis. The movement of the legs is similar to pedaling a bicycle.

Running on the spot

It is used, as a rule, as an alternative to street training.

It allows you to strengthen the cardiovascular system, tighten body muscles, burn calories at home. It can be used instead of morning exercises or for warming up with long sitting work.The benefits include improved digestion, as well as getting rid of depressive conditions.

There are different running techniques in place:

  • classic;
  • with high hips;
  • with overwhelming tibia.

By combining execution methods, you can control the load.

To create a healing effect, it is better to "run" on the balcony or with an open window (in the warm season, of course). This will enhance the filling of blood with pure oxygen. To increase the load, we recommend using sand weights on the shins.

Run up stairs

Used to strengthen the muscles of the legs and get rid of excess weight. In addition, ligaments, tendons, as well as small stabilizing muscles throughout the body are being worked out.

This allows you to improve balance and coordination. The effect of losing weight is due to the high calorie consumption due to the inclusion of large muscle groups in the work. Of course, do not forget about following a low-carb diet.

For classes you will need stable sneakers with non-slip soles. Before you go to the porch, you should stretch your legs well with a jump rope or running in place.

If you are a beginner, start with a quick step for 15 minutes. In this case, the number of floors should be at least 4-5. After 6-7 such classes, proceed to easy running. During your workout, keep your heart rate in the aerobic zone.

Running with weights

The extra weight may be in the form of pads on the lower legs or a special belt.

Untrained athletes do not need such shells. Beginners are recommended to start with simple loads and gradually increase the intensity. It is necessary that muscle tissue grows in small capillaries, and ligaments are strengthened. A gradual increase in workloads has a positive effect in training.

Prepared athletes use weights for better muscle training and training of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

At the same time, the running technique remains the same.

We recommend using weight pads from 0.5 to 5 kg. Heavy projectiles can damage the ligamentous apparatus.

Before using leg weights, be sure to flex the knee joints.

Interval running

The most effective way to burn subcutaneous fat. Interval training is an alternation of periods of intense running with the stages of active recovery. An example of an interval program for 20-25 minutes:

  1. 100 m - jogging;
  2. 100 m - acceleration;
  3. 100 m - fast step;
  4. the circle repeats.

This training method is not recommended for overweight people and beginner athletes, as it loads the heart.

In addition to losing weight, the advantages of interval running are increased stamina, strengthen the muscles of the body, accelerate metabolic processes.

Classes last no more than 30 minutes.Thanks to variable loads, during this time the body manages to use up glucose stores and start burning fat. The interval method is also used on cardiovascular equipment (orbitrek, bicycle ergometer, treadmill).

Fartlek

A system developed by Swedish trainer Guest Helmer. In fact, it is a variation of interval training.

It can be used not only in running classes, but also in other disciplines (rowing, swimming, etc.). If we consider Fartlek as a jogging technique, then it will be based on intensive stages, between which recovery pauses are made. The duration of the training is 35-40 minutes.

The difference between fartleck and standard interval classes is the rest time.

In Fartlek, recovery lasts 3-4 times longer than the period of stress. The rest is interval running that is familiar to everyone.

The advantages of this type of exercise:

  • reduction of body fat;
  • strengthening of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems;
  • tightening of problem areas in women;
  • improving overall well-being and mood.

Cross

Running training on rough terrain (land with difficult terrain for movement). Thanks to the fresh air, cross-country race is considered the best type of running for health.

The uneven surface makes the athlete spend more calories when moving, which positively affects weight loss. And the intake of pure oxygen improves lung function and improves mood.

Since the athlete moves off-road, there is an increased risk of tucking the foot. To avoid injuries before the cross, it is necessary to warm up the muscles and joints of the legs.

The training itself, as a rule, lasts from 40 minutes to 1.

5 hours. The speed of jogging is slightly higher than the pace of jogging. Cross-country shoes choose specialized. Tracking sneakers with a moisture removal function are best suited.

Shuttle run

High-speed movements with a constant change of direction.

As a rule, an athlete moves between two points - forward and backward. The number of runs in each direction is determined by the purpose of the lesson. The shuttle race pace is maximum. The athlete accelerates to the end of the designated segment, then turns around and runs in the opposite direction. At each point, you need to make a hand touch the floor to fix the position.

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The benefits of such runs:

  • the development of an "explosive" effort with legs;
  • increase speed characteristics;
  • strengthening muscle;
  • burning of subcutaneous fat;
  • improving coordination and balance of the body.

If you want to do shuttle running, we recommend that you first work out the technique of movement with the help of light runs back and forth with touching the floor at each point. This will help you quickly adapt your muscles to stress.

Rogaining

Type of outdoor activities, analogue of orienteering on the ground.Competitions are held both in the team competition and in the individual. The task of the participants is to get as many points as possible, which are awarded for completing the stages of the distance. The main difference between rogaining and orienteering is that the runners know in advance where the control points are and plan the route.

The duration of the rogaining starts from 3 hours and lasts up to a day.

The main type of movement is running. Competitions are also held for the elderly. In this case, the run is replaced with Nordic walking.

Rogaining is similar in effect to the body with crosses. Athletes receive high-quality physical activity, burn subcutaneous fat, improve overall health due to the frequent inhalation of pure oxygen.

What to choose?

The choice of sports direction depends on the goals. If you want to quickly lose weight and do not hesitate to engage in the street, then the appropriate disciplines are jogging, fartlek and interval running. For those who want to make the figure slimmer without leaving home, we recommend running exercises on ladders and in one place. Lovers of outdoor activities will appreciate Rogaining and cross-country skiing.

If your dream is to run a full marathon, you cannot do without an experienced mentor.

Sign up for special preparatory courses, where they will give you a training system and teach you how to eat.

Well, if you are choosing a sports section for a child, we recommend athletics. Even if the baby does not become a champion, he will still receive an athletic “base” that he will apply in other sports and in life.

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