Migraine is a disease that is associated with a feature of the brain, with a feature of the perception of pain. In the middle of the twentieth century it was believed that migraine is a vascular disease, that either the vessels are stretched or narrowed, or these processes occur in turn. Now it’s obvious that migraine is associated with excessive activity of the trigeminal nucleus. A person has sensitivity in the head region: wherever he pokes with a needle, it irritates the fibers of the trigeminal nerve, and the pain signal, like through electric wires, enters the nucleus. Then, from this nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the signal goes to the cerebral cortex, due to which a person is aware of pain.
What happens with a migraine? In migraine, for reasons not yet fully understood, the trigeminal nucleus itself becomes excessively active and sends pain impulses to the cerebral cortex, which actually do not exist. It may seem to a person that a nail is driven into his eye. But physically this, of course, does not happen, this nail is not there, but there is sensation.
Recent studies say that the hypothalamus is considered a migraine generator. The nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is active during pain, and before the migraine attack, when it is just beginning, the hypothalamus zone is activated.
This is confirmed by clinical observations: sometimes the patient before the onset of migraine - for several hours or even days - may have a disturbed concentration, he can often yawn, want sweets. This is all that is in the area of competence of the hypothalamus.
There are several theories of the occurrence of migraine. They have not yet been fully studied, but it is obvious that there is a genetic predisposition. Doctors see that in 60-80% of cases, this passes from mother to child and further.
In this case, one single gene of ordinary migraine does not exist. But apparently, there is a certain genetic set that determines that the trigeminal nucleus will be more sensitive to some provocateurs than people without migraines.
Migraine provocateurs are migraine triggers, individual attack triggers. They are well known: emotional stress, alcohol, the beginning of the menstrual cycle (plus or minus two days from the beginning of the cycle), hunger, sleep disturbance, food (there is an assumption that cheeses or citrus fruits can cause migraines, but, frankly, this is rare ) Sometimes the patient does not have any triggers, but most often they can be determined.