I want to become a bone marrow donor. It hurts?

"Become a bone marrow donor - save a life." Such an inscription looks at people from a billboard in Moscow streets, someone seems to want to help, but knows nothing about the bone marrow itself, nor about how it will be taken away. We understand this together with the hematologist of the K + 31 clinic Marina Faynberg.

I want to become a bone marrow donor. It hurts?

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- The bone marrow is a soft tissue of the internal cavity of the bone, where hematopoiesis occurs in humans (maturation of blood cells, blood formation). In humans, bone marrow averages 4% of body weight. Distinguish between red and yellow bone marrow. The red (active) bone marrow is myeloid tissue, which consists of two main components: stromal (stroma, which serves as a microenvironment for blood-forming cells) and hematal (shaped blood elements at different stages of development).

The yellow (inactive) bone marrow is adipose tissue. It is located in the bone marrow canals of the tubular bones.

Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (bone marrow transplantation) is a medical procedure used in hematology and oncology, for diseases of the blood and bone marrow, as well as some other malignant diseases.

Depending on the source of hematopoietic cells, there are:

  • autologous transplantation (pre-harvested cells received from the patient himself);
  • allogeneic transplantation (from the donor, including number of relatives).

Selection of a bone marrow donor for a particular patient - a very complex procedure, which is performed according to the principle of tissue compatibility of the donor and the recipient.

The coincidence of blood groups in the AB0 system is optional. The greatest chance of finding a donor is to examine the patient’s siblings: the probability of full compatibility with a brother or sister is 25%. If there are no brothers and sisters suitable for donation, you will have to look for unrelated bone marrow donors.

Any competent person aged 18 to 55 years who has never had hepatitis B or C, tuberculosis, malaria, malignant diseases, mental disorders can become a potential bone marrow donor , is not a carrier of HIV and satisfies some other requirements.

I want to become a bone marrow donor.</p><p> It hurts?

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In order to become a potential bone marrow donor (to be enrolled in the register), you must undergo HLA typing in one of the centers providing this service. The procedure is to take 5-10 milliliters of blood from a vein. If you are suitable as a potential donor for a patient, you will need another 10 ml sample of your blood to make sure that you are compatible with the patient.

If compatibility is confirmed, you will be immediately informed about the methods for collecting bone marrow or peripheral hematopoietic stem cells and the preferred method for a particular patient.

I want to become a bone marrow donor. It hurts?

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Thanks to the use of drugs that stimulate the release of bone marrow cells into the peripheral blood, it is possible to avoid the collection of the bone marrow from the donor.

In this case, blood is taken from the vein and subjected to apheresis, as a result, the cells necessary for the recipient (patient) are taken, and the blood itself is returned to the donor's body. Externally, the procedure is similar to hemodialysis. Then the patient is injected intravenously with a suspension of donor hematopoietic cells, which gradually populate his bone marrow from the bloodstream and restore blood formation.

I want to become a bone marrow donor. It hurts?

Photo: shutterstock. com

If bone marrow cells rather than peripheral blood are taken from a donor for transplantation, the donor will be hospitalized for one day in the clinic. The bone marrow harvesting procedure is performed under general anesthesia. Bone marrow is taken from the pelvic bones with special needles with a wide clearance. The procedure lasts up to two hours, during which no more than 5% of the total volume of the bone marrow of the donor is taken.

As a rule, in the evening on the day of surgery, the donor can leave the clinic home. For several days, pain is allowed - as after an impact when falling. Ordinary painkillers help. Complete bone marrow restoration in the donor occurs within two weeks.

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