- Asthma is a allergic disease of the lower respiratory tract, characterized by episodes of bronchospasm and a pathological reaction of the bronchi to any irritant. That is, due to the action of a certain stimulus, a sharp narrowing of the airways occurs, which in turn leads to severe shortness of breath and suffocation.
This happens as follows: upon contact with an allergen or irritating substance, a severe allergic reaction occurs, along with which a spasm of the muscles of the bronchi occurs. A lot of thick sputum is formed, which also prevents normal breathing.
Asthma is a multifactorial disease.
Yes, in fact, this disease is a genetic predisposition, however, for its development, certain environmental factors are necessary. As a rule, asthmatics have relatives with allergic reactions in the family. It is not necessary that each parent with this disease will pass it on to his child. In addition, in order for heredity to appear, a person needs to constantly meet certain allergens and have sensitivity to them - sensitization.
In fact, things that are quite familiar to us can become the cause of this disease.
These are mainly house dust allergens, mites living on the skin of cats and dogs, cockroaches, mold, fungus, smells, cigarette smoke, household chemicals, animal products (meat, milk, seafood). But at the same time it is interesting that children who were protected in every possible way from a collision with these allergens were more likely to develop allergic diseases than those who had to deal with them constantly. There is no exact explanation for this phenomenon.
It is clear that with an active interaction with a cat in a person prone to asthma, the disease will develop faster. But in absolutely sterile conditions the same thing happens.
In addition, infections can provoke an asthma attack: viruses and bacteria, as well as a fungal infection.
Asthma can occur in a person at a fairly mature age. And not the fact that it will be a consequence of the reaction to the allergens listed above. Among other risk factors for asthma, there may be nervous experiences, prolonged depression - all this, in combination with the factors mentioned above, can lead to the formation of asthma in an adult. There is a reverse situation: asthmatics may have a higher level of anxiety than healthy people.
In fact, any - even insignificant - emotional leap can provoke attacks of suffocation in them.