All you need to know about painkillers: a detailed guide

- The painkillers we use in everyday life are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They work like this:


special enzymes, which reduces the production of prostaglandins. It is prostaglandins that make nerve fibers sensitive to pain . Medications block the ability of nerve fibers to “feel” pain and transmit a signal about it to the brain.

Opioid (they are also narcotic) analgesics are rarely used in everyday life.

They affect directly on receptors in the nerves and brain.

There are drugs that are not painkillers, but help cope with certain types of pain. For example, antispasmodics, nitrates, antidepressants and anticonvulsants.

Painkillers do not cure the cause of pain, do not stop tissue damage, but only disable the ability to sense it in the brain.

All you need to know about painkillers: a detailed guide

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- The way the ability to feel pain

worked out

in living organisms during evolution. When we feel pain, we are more likely to survive. If this ability fails, the body is at risk. For example, in patients with diabetes, sensitivity to pain is reduced. If a wound forms on the leg, a person runs the risk of losing a limb, because he simply does not feel any deterioration.

People with congenital insensitivity to pain may not notice a wound, burn, or disease of internal organs. Damage is not sent to their brain.

If you do not know the cause of the pain or have not encountered similar symptoms before, it is better not to take pain medication, but consult a doctor. But if the reason is clear - for example, the head hurts due to fever or stuffiness - there is no point in enduring it. You can drink painkillers.

All you need to know about painkillers: a detailed guide

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- If you drink painkillers from time to time, this should not turn into serious health problems. But people who are forced to drink them constantly, over time, can earn problems with

gastrointestinal tract

(from mild heartburn to ulcers in esophagus, stomach and small intestine), injuries


and arterial hypertension,


, blood diseases. Against the background of the constant intake of painkillers, sometimes problems arise with the cardiovascular system and


bones after fractures.

Narcotic painkillers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants have more pronounced side effects and limitations in use.

They can only be drunk as directed by a doctor.

- Without a prescription in pharmacies you can buy aspirin, paracetamol, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, indomethacin, piroxicam, and combinations thereof. All of these drugs are NSAIDs. There is no fundamental difference between them.

Funds can be sold in tablets , in the form of gels and ointments (ibuprofen, diclofenac, piroxicam), eye drops (indomethacin), rectal suppositories (indomethacin, diclofenac, paracetamol, ketoprofen, ibuprofen), plasters (indomethacin, ketoprofen) and rinse solutions (ketoprofen).

Some of the drugs can be used in the form of injections (as prescribed by the doctor).

When choosing a specific drug and its form, focus on the following factors:

  • localization and intensity of pain,
  • peculiarities of your body and experience,
  • other diseases and conditions,
  • planned duration of admission (for example, for long-term use it is better not to choose pills).

During spasmodic pains - during menstruation or intestinal colic - the doctor may prescribe an antispasmodic (papaverine, drotaverine), and not NSAIDs. All medicines have contraindications. Before use, you need to read the instructions and consult with a specialist.

All you need to know about painkillers: a detailed guide

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- Metamizole sodium, known as analgin, is a dangerous component. In Russia, it is used as an anesthetic and antipyretic, but since 1991, WHO

does not recommend

to use analgin , since it causes changes in the composition of blood cells.

- Each drug has its own maximum daily dose. If one tablet does not help, you can drink another one.

But it is better to try another medicine or non-drug methods: take a warm shower or bath , ventilate the room, take a walk after prolonged inactive work, eat, drink water or go to bed. Measure your blood pressure and glucose, especially if you have a chronic illness.

If the pressure rises along with the pain, you feel weak, dizzy, you need to consult a doctor.

All you need to know about painkillers: a detailed guide

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Get medical help if muscle pain

is accompanied by

problems with breathing or dizziness, severe muscle weakness, high fever and spasm of the occipital muscles.

Abdominal pain

- fever, bloody or black loose stools, constant nausea and vomiting, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, swelling of the abdomen .

Headache - confusion or difficulty understanding speech, fainting, high fever (39-40 degrees Celsius), numbness, weakness, or paralysis of one side of the body , sudden problems with vision, speech, or walking, as well as nausea or vomiting.

If the pain is associated with injury or accident , be sure to consult a doctor. In case of chronicles , often recurring pains, visit the doctor in a planned manner.



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