All about gallbladder health: diseases, symptoms and prevention

In Europe and the USA, gallstone disease occurs in

10-15%

people. Together with the doctor-gastroenterologist Elena Vladimirovna Kostyrko from the

"Atlas"

clinic, we understand how the gall bladder works, where the stones come from, how to avoid their appearance and what to do if the stones are all- formed.

Gall bladder - an organ the size of the index finger (6-9 cm), which is located in the upper right parts of the abdomen, right under the liver. The gallbladder is a bit like a muscular bag with a long "neck" in shape and structure.

The "neck" of the gallbladder connects to the duct through which bile leaves the liver.

A little lower, it connects to another duct, which goes from the pancreas, and flows into the small intestine. The intestines and ducts are separated by the sphincter of Oddi - the muscular “gates” that open after a person has eaten.

All about gallbladder health: diseases, symptoms and prevention

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Gall bladder - a warehouse for bile. This caustic liquid is a kind of "household waste" of the liver, the main filter of our body.

By secreting bile, the liver gets rid of excess cholesterol and the toxic decomposition product of hemoglobin - bilirubin.

Our body is designed very reasonably and economically. Bile does not disappear, but goes into business - it helps break down fatty foods. But since the liver always works, regardless of whether we ate or not, then until we sit at the table, 75% of the bile is stored in the gallbladder.

If during lunch time the “standard” portion of bile secreted by the liver is not enough to break down all the fat from food, the gall bladder comes to the rescue.

Under the influence of digestive hormones, the muscle layer of the organ contracts, an additional portion of concentrated bile enters the intestines.

The more fat a person ate, the stronger the gall bladder “shrinks” - and the more bile enters the intestines. And if a person decides to limit himself to a light salad, then the bile stored in the bladder will remain unclaimed.

  • A person can live without a gall bladder. Of course, we don’t have unnecessary organs, and the gall bladder is very important.

    Nevertheless, a person can live without him. If this organ is removed, then bile from the liver will enter directly into the intestine.

  • Diseases of the gallbladder may be associated with its contents . Under certain conditions, bile can begin to crystallize - this is how gallstones arise.
  • Many people do not even suspect that there are stones in their gallbladder.

    As a rule, cholelithiasis proceeds without symptoms. Sometimes stones are discovered by chance, for example, during an X-ray examination, ultrasound, computed tomography or surgical operations that are not connected with the stones in any way.

  • Gallstones are more common in women than in men . In addition to sex, the risk of developing gallstone disease is affected by age (stones are more often formed in people over 40), heredity (if someone in the family has gallstone disease, the risk of stone formation in relatives is higher).
  • The risk of stone formation depends on lifestyle .

    Stones are more often formed in overweight people who lead a sedentary lifestyle.

All about gallbladder health: diseases, symptoms and prevention

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Cause of the disease - violation chemical balance of bile. It is not known to the end why this is happening. However, it is believed that if the concentration of cholesterol or bilirubin increases in bile

and

, these substances begin to crystallize.

Over time, crystals can turn into stones. Most gallbladder diseases are somehow related to stones.

If the stone blocks the duct, bile begins to accumulate in the bubble. As a result, inflammation of the bile duct may begin - cholangitis.

Occurs if the gallstone successfully skips the duct, but overlaps the sphincter of Oddi - general exit to the small intestine for the bile duct and pancreatic duct.

As a result, pancreatic juice begins to accumulate in the pancreas - a “set” of digestive enzymes that also participate in the digestion of food. This leads to life-threatening inflammation of the pancreas.

This is an inflammation of the gallbladder. The disease can occur for various reasons, among which - blockage of the biliary tract, infection, impaired motility of the gallbladder and its ducts.

This is a rare cancer

associated

with mutations that occur in the cells that make up the gallbladder.

Some people inherit mutations from their parents, but more often mutant cells form throughout life. In some cases, cancer can trigger inflammation, which is all due to the same stones. In other cases, the reason cannot be determined.

There are other problems that lead to gallbladder disease. For example, the sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a painful condition in which the work of the sphincter is disrupted.

Sometimes this disease develops after removal of the gallbladder.

All about gallbladder health: diseases, symptoms and prevention

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Typically, problems with a gall bladder do not manifest themselves. Most often, discomfort occurs only when inflammation has begun or if the stone has blocked the bile duct or the sphincter of Oddi.

A classic sign of gallbladder problems is gallstone colic.

This is an attack of pain in the upper right abdomen, just below the ribs, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and pain in the right shoulder or back. Sometimes pain is felt in the center of the abdomen or in the lower chest. Typically, colic occurs when the gallbladder contracts in response to fatty foods, and disappears a few hours after eating.

Biliary colic - a signal that it is time to make an appointment with a gastroenterologist. In this case, there are situations when you can’t postpone the visit - you need to seek emergency help.

  • pain in the stomach lasts longer five hours,
  • skin or sclera of the eyes turned yellowish,
  • nausea or vomiting occurred,
  • temperature rose above 38 ° C, there is chills.

All about gallbladder health: diseases, symptoms and prevention

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" Cleansing the gallbladder - myth . It is impossible to get rid of stones in the gallbladder

if you drink olive oil, decoctions from herbs or starve for several days. Although suspicious lumps may appear in the stool after such treatment, they are not gallstones, but clots of oil, juice and intestinal contents.

All that olive oil can do is provoke diarrhea, aggravate nausea or vomiting. It is impossible to recover in this way, but to harm yourself is completely.

All about gallbladder health: diseases, symptoms and prevention

Photo: shutterstock. com

  1. Yellow the bubble is the organ that is responsible for storing bile. In most cases, gallbladder disease is associated with a violation of the chemical balance of bile.

  2. Diseases of the gallbladder may not manifest themselves in any way. The most common symptom of gallbladder disease is biliary colic.
  3. Consult a doctor if you have a fever, you feel sick, your stomach hurts for more than five hours, your skin and sclera have turned yellow.
  4. The best way to prevent gallbladder disease is to have a healthy lifestyle.
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